Second world war affected the world completely. Second world war destructed Europe, especially countries like Germany and Poland. Citizens were affected and so was infrastructure. End of Second world war was deadly. this war claimed the most number of lives including battle deaths and civilians of all countries, is estimated to have been 56.4 million, assuming 26.6 million Soviet fatalities and 7.8 million Chinese civilians were killed.
After second world war, fascism was seen as a fragile idea and was not given preference. This was completely different from what happened after the first world war. After the first world war, democracy was considered as young and fragile but now conditions were changed. People were demanding for voting, proper referendum and Constitution. Communism was another major form of government which was rising both after the first and second world war.
Conditions of nations after second world war(Brief)-
- Africa- Africa was mostly out of the war, except for some northern countries like Algeria, Egypt, Libya, etc. Not much impact was there except fall of Axis power over there and the rise of individual countries.
- Europe- Europe was the epicenter of war, claiming most casualties. Jews wanted a nation of their own domination (Isreal was established). Germany was further divided into two regions- East Germany and West Germany, each region dominated by the Soviet Union and America respectively. Britain, France, and Italy were having a hard time recovering from the devastation.
- Pacific was again recovered and recaptured by the USA, however, the impact of WW2 will be remembered in Pacific.
- East Asia- East Asia was hugely impacted by war, Japan lost its territory from South East Asia, Korea, and from China. China was trying to recover and fought for democracy and communism was started. Finally, communism won with support from USSR. Same happened with Korean region, which resulted in the Korean War. Southeast Asia was mostly claimed by the British and French army. Countries later established their own nations over there.
- Americas- Impact of WW2 on North America was there, claiming lives of a huge number of soldiers and economic loss. However, there was no destruction of infrastructure. South America was not at all affected.
- Near East- Countries like Libya, Eritrea, Somalia, and Egypt were independent of Colonial rule. Iran was a major standoff between USSR (claiming northern Iran) and USA (claiming Southern IRAN).
The world was now dominated by two major nations and tow major form of governments.
- Communism/Soviet Union
- democracy/United States of America
The soviet union wanted communism to rise in the world whereas the USA was the one who wanted democracy to dominate the world. Both nations however allied in WW2 but after that war, they were in war with each other of getting their form of government to dominate because if their form of government will dominate, so will do their nations. And applying this strategy was perfect for both the nations because, after the second world war, the world was unstable and needed huge fundings.
Then came the Marshall Plan. George Marshal at that time was more famous than the president of America Truman. George Marshal built a powerful team for the formation of Marshal plan, some of the members of the team were-
- Dean Acheson
- George Kennan
- Will Clayton
Marshal plan had two sides, good side and not so good side. The Marshall Plan, also known as the European Recovery Program, channeled over $13 billion to finance the economic recovery of Europe between 1948 and 1951. In very simple words, Marshal law said to fund the whole Europe and stand for them.
But the complex side of marshal plan was that George Marshal wanted European nations to make a list of things they needed and then USA will provide the funds on the bases of a synchronized list (revised by the USA) And then by using those funds, European nations can buy things only from the USA. This was a very finest classic trick by the USA and it seemed that European nations will accept this because this was the best option for them to accept.
Marshal plan made Soviets furious because if Europe accepted the Marshal plan, then it will be a very bad situation for Soviet union as they will lose domination in Europe Soviet Union disagreed the agreement and refused to participate in it. They also pressurized Poland and Czechoslovakia not to participate in Marshal plan despite their wish.
After world war 2, USA emerged as a Superpower, taking off British Empire. Reasons for that were free trade, which was heavily practiced by British empire earlier but now the USA was the major trading hub. The second reason was Social democracy as the all democracies around the world were indirectly inspired by the Social democracy of USA. Big unions and big businesses impacted power of USA a lot. Signing North Atlantic Treaty(NATO) played a crucial law which made the USA as Godfather of the world. Another key reason was that the USA was having a monopoly over others because of the Atomic bomb. From 1945-1949, they were the only nation who had an atomic bomb(Later developed by USSR). This made them think that they now needed no military as form protection, they had an atomic bomb which was enough to defend themselves and to defend their allies.
Hunt for both the superpowers continued to get their type of government to dominate the world. Which resulted in Cold war.